Complications associated with T2DM

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Complications associated with T2DM

1. Complications associated with T2DM
a) Microvascular complications
Diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic neuropathy
b) Macrovascular complications
Atherosclerosis
2. Causes of diabetic complications
Aldose reductase (polyol) pathway
PKC pathway

Advanced glycation end products pathway
3. Protein glycation reaction
Chemistry of protein glycation
Protein glycation: an early stage
Protein glycation: an intermediate stage
Protein glycation: an advanced stage
Figure The three steps of the glycation reaction.
4. Glycation and oxidation reaction (other pathways for advanced glycation end products formation)
Autoxidative glycation (Wolf pathway)
Schiff base fragmentation (Namiki pathway)
Glycoxidation reaction
Figure Alternative pathways of the glycation reaction.