Contrast media for old patient (refer to the instructions to see the question)


Q: A 70 year old patient with chronic renal failure has been scheduled for a coronary angiography examination. Discuss

the possible adverse reactions to the iodinated contrast media that the patient may encounter and how they can be

prevented.Use new resources (within last 10 year)
Introduction:200 WORDS
• Renal failure (General statement about the renal failure + Definition)
• What is the coronary angiography (what is the purpose of it)
• Contrast media (what is the purpose of it)
Body1:150 WORDS
• Chronic renal failure (what is it – How does it happen – why does it happen)
Body 2:150 WORDS
• Coronary angiography (what is it – How does it performed – why does it performed)
Body3:400 WORDS
• Iodinated Contrast Media (what is it – types )
• The most important factors in contrast media: Talk about each one in separate paragraph
1. Osmolality
2. Ionic or non-ionic
3. Strength
4. Viscosity
5. Chemotoxicity
Body 4:400 WORDS: ((Discuss)) the possible adverse reactions to the iodinated contrast media that the patient may

encounter (include any other reactions). separate paragraph for each
1. Minor: Flushing-Nausea-Vomiting-Mild rash-Arm pain. in separate paragraph
2. Moderate: More severe-urticaria Facial oedema-Hypotension-Bronchospasm
3. Severe: Hypotensive shock-Laryngeal oedema-Convulsions-Respiratory and cardiac arrest
4. ANAPHYLAXIS (Explain in details)
Body 5:400 WORDSprevention methods of the adverse reactions:((Discuss this in relation to Contrast Media, angiography and

Chronic Renal Failure.))include any other method
1. How High OsmolarContrast Media, Low OsmolarContrast Media result in less nephrotoxicity but still can cause

2. The radiologist or cardiologist should use the smallest volume of contrast needed to obtain the imaging
3. Nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs should be discontinued before contrast exposure
4. Serum creatinine test and glomerular filtration rate before the separate paragraph
Conclusion:200 WORDS: Summarise the key points +Recommendation (mention another imaging modality which is Nuclear

Medicine) and (another kind of contrast medium if that possible)


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