Education theories


Critical Read each individual Response ATTACHED 1. Keith Miller2. Jim Berry, 3.Marcelle N. Fleurinorand 4.Kevin Gilkerson.

In your own words, respond with constructive feedback, suggestions, questions, and a substantive response FOR EACH OF THE

1. Keith Miller

Quantitative Hypothesis and a Null Hypothesis

Measure and compare external benchmarks against current knowledge and learning in a 30 day period will provide the

efficiency and effectiveness of the program design. The null hypothesis for this statement would be that measuring and

comparing benchmarks against current knowledge and learning in a 30 period will not provide the efficiency and

effectiveness of the program design. The variable being that the 30 day period would not be enough time to collect enough

data to accurately measure differences. Trafimow& Rice (2009) identify the significance of the null hypothesis as the

probability for the hypothesis to be tested. If the null hypothesis is not rejected an alternative hypothesis such as

“Measure and compare external benchmarks against current knowledge and learning in a 90 day period will provide the

efficiency and effectiveness of the program design” can be developed.

This would be important because if valid data could not be collected in the 30 day period the extension of the variable’s

time would allow for the validity of the data to provide better accuracy from the samples. According to McCaslin& Wilson

Scott (2003) qualitative research focuses on the problem question or an issue illustrated by the problem question. Using

hypothesis, null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis covers the areas for which the topic is directed towards. Wilson

&Natale (2001) give an example for a quantitative question as “how big is the army?” where the answer would be a numerical

or statistical number. They discuss further that even if the reply would suggest a description such as small or large it

would still represent an answer in numerical terms.

Using benchmarks in quantitative questions can identify statistical information for research. Asking the question “is 30

days enough time to gather sufficient data for analysis?” could result in “yes, 30 days is enough time”, “no, 30 days is

not enough time”. Using close-end questions in quantitative research provides particular types of evidence that can be

measured. Open –end questions in qualitative research provide sources of information that can be considered judgmental and

bias. Kapoulas&Mitic (2012) discuss a shift by researchers in using qualitative methods to explore contemporary issues in

research such as focus groups that provide a wide variety of open-ended answers to a particular question.

Maxwell & Beattie (2004) discuss ethical standards in research and argue the importance to ensure the “right” outcome in

terms of research methodology. When ethical standards are deviated from, the sample data collected during research can

unknowingly result in the wrong results. Manipulated data from benchmarking can represent false results from measuring and

comparing this data. Benchmarks provide the knowledge of the current status. Without ethical standards in place the true

and correct status could not be established.

2. Jim Berry

A quantitative hypothesis and a null hypothesis
Explain why you feel this is an important topic to investigate and why a quantitative method would be appropriate.
A qualitative research question with 3 guiding questions
Explain why you feel this is an important topic to investigate and why a qualitative method would be appropriate.
A summary of ethical responsibilities that align with the selected topic and method

Quantitative research is a type of research that is looking for a problem to solve. In doing this type of

research, there needs to be a hypothesis. This is a guess of what the researcher thinks what will happen between the

things that are being looked at in the study (Toledo, Flikkema, & Toledo-Pereyra, 2011). A null hypothesis is the

opposite of the hypothesis, which means that the researcher hopes that nothing happens in the study. A hypothesis in

looking at fine art schools vs. public art programs could be written as such: The fine art school will produce higher

grade art and art students than a public school art program. On the null side of the question: There is no difference in

the level of art or art students that come from a fine art school or a public school art program. This would make a good

study for someone working on a PhD degree. These types of questions raise the basic question of who is better at teaching

the children. It would be a good quantitative study because it would force people to look at the data objectively and not

thru emotions (Arghode, 2012; Yalmaz, 2013).

A quantitative research question would have to start off with being a very general, open-ended question. A

question like that might be worded like: In the differences between fine art schools and public art programs; how could a

parent determine which would be better for their child? In order to help keep the study focused, other guiding questions

could also be asked. Those questions might be like: Are the differences in schools due to the amount of money that people

make that send their children to these schools? Is the pay better at a fine art school for the teachers? Is the

curriculum at the public school harder than the fine art school? These are types of questions that can be answered very

easily by using a quantitative research study because the information is based in facts and not opinions.

By using ethical standards, the possibility of wrong doing in the research study is greatly decreased. A

couple of ethical standards that need to be used include: Research Misconduct, Confidentiality, and Scientific, Scholarly,

and Professional Standards (Anonymous, 2015). It should also go without say that any researcher, no matter what type of

research is being done or how it is being done, should always make sure that each and every ethical consideration be used

and followed.

3.Marcelle N. Fleurinor
There are numerous differences between qualitative and qualitative measurements. A quantitative hypothesis: We can

hypothesis that integrated arts and science exhilarate student’s success. After the data collection is proved there was an

increase from 30% to 40% in arts and science.

Null Hypothesis: Arts and science are two separates topics; therefore they can only be used separately.

In a biological setting learning a mechanism by which an organ operates is science knowledge, however a visual picture or

video clip of an organ can be used to facilitate learning as well. The visual picture or video clip is the arts portion.

Both arts and science can be used together to increase students learning.

Qualitative guiding questions are: How will students perform incorporating science and art? Will applying science math

and art help increase students testing scores? Should we incorporate math, science, and art together in a lesson?

Qualitative is important because it describes data defined techniques and understands a sound base for further decision

making. Quantitative research basically seeks explanatory laws; qualitative research aims at in –depth description

(Anderson, 2006).

Part II
Quantitative hypothesis: The addition of using a metronome while practicing significantly improves a guitarist’s ability

to maintain time.
Null hypothesis: The addition of using a metronome while practicing will not improve a guitarist’s ability to maintain


In Unit 1, I selected the ability of a guitarist playing a piece of music at a selected tempo as a

benchmark of success in an arts program. This is an important topic to investigate for two reasons; first, the ability of

a guitarist to maintain time is a critical skill required of any serious musician. Second, quantitative data (primary) can

easily be gathered over a relatively short period of time using simple methods.

Qualitative research question: Does using a metronome improve guitarists’ ability to maintain time?

Guiding questions: (1) Do guitarists’ ability to maintain time deteriorate if they practice without a consistent beat? (2)

Can measurable improvement in guitarists’ maintaining time occur by introducing a metronome into their normal practice

routine? (3) Can guitarists’ ability to maintain time improve significantly with the introduction of a metronome and

time-specific training exercise?

This is an important topic to investigate because it would give us usable data to support whether this

method (using a metronome) would have a significant, measurable improvement on guitarists’ ability to maintain a

particular tempo. This information, if correct, could have an impact on how schools conduct musical training. It is a

simple and inexpensive tool which could provide significant positive results. Further, there are established links between

music training and improved academic success. (Taub& Lazarus, 2012)


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