somatic and autonomic nervous systems

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somatic and autonomic nervous systems

Study Questions Week 5 (online)
1.Describe each of the following (what they are made of, what they do, where they are located if applicable): Neuron(include the difference between motor/sensory/interneuron); Nerve;Tract.
How are the somatic and autonomic nervous systems different, explain.

2. Somebody pinches you:
Describe how this pinch becomes an action potential& describe an action potential.   Explain how the action potential moves along the membrane (I want to know exactly what is happening at the cellular level that makes an action potential and how the action potential is then moved from one area of the membrane to the next along an axon).  Make sure this explains each of the following,: resting state, depolarization, repolarization, return to resting state, the roles of Na & K (ie don’t just tell me:  the axon depolarizes, then repolarizes without explaining what this means).
Next the action potential makes it to the synapse.  What is a synapse?  Describe the most common way that the action potential transfers from the initial sensory neuron (presynaptic cell)to the post synaptic cell.   Please make sure you include in this last part an explanation of what neurotransmitter are and how they work.

3.What is myelin, what cells make it and where(hint different cells make it depending on location)?  Myelin insulates the axon, besides protection what significant function does this provide the cell?
What is multiple sclerosis and what happens at the cellular level in the disease process?
What is neuropathy (describe what it is and where it occurs and symptoms)?

4. Describe the cerebrum including an explanation of its gray & white matterand its divisions by lobes.
What are the functions of the different lobes (you will have needed to read the communication section to completely answer this)?
Explain how long term memory is formed.

5. Describe the 3 different meninges: where they are located, what they are made of and any special functions.
In question 4 you described the cerebrum now describe the other divisions of the brain (where they are located & their primary functions, include a detailed description of the vital centers when applicable).

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6. Describe in detail the following (including location, duration until symptoms, symptoms, outcome if applicable): epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, intracerebral hemorrhage.
What exactly is a CVA(don’t just say a cerebral vascular accident or a stroke- mechanism please) and what are the two mechanisms that cause CVA’s (2 different types of things can happen in the brain tissue leading to a CVA)?
A person has a stroke in the Temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex- what are some probable impairments (hint also look at the communication section).
Same question as the last but in the occipital lobe?  (hint also look at the communication section).
What is a similarity between multi-infarct dementia andAlzheimer’s disease?  What are some key differences?

7.  Follow a ray of light from the environment around you all the way through to stimulation of the optic nerve to the brain.
Describe each step: From what the light goes through (physically) , the things that happen to the light along the way, how it creates a stimulus in the retina with both dim light and bright light.
You AlSO need to include the following processes (definition of what they are and how they occur):  refraction, accommodation, regulation of the amount of light entering the eye, convergence. (some of these you may explain in the first part of this question if you do, you do not need to reexplain them).
** This should be a fairly detailed answer
What is glaucoma, how does it occur, and who should be screened for the disease?

8.  Describe the HEARING (not equilibrium)process: Begin with a sound wave that enters the external auditory canal all the way through to stimulation of the cochlear nerve to the brain.
What two factors are the hearing cells sensitive to and how can the hearing cells differentiate between variations in these two different factors?
What is sensorineural hearing loss? What are some risk factors?

9. Describe the sense of smell: What type of sensory receptors(in regards to what they respond to)are found in the nose and what conditions are needed for the receptors to be stimulated.  What purposes does the sense of smell provide a person? What conditions can reduce the function of these receptors (you should be able to come up with a few things even if not stated in the book based on the answer to the first part of this question)?
Describe referred pain: what is it and whydoes it occurs.

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